For what man produces or synthesizes a substance? Handles materials derived from them? And then makes one part? The last word is a clue, because of the details of what is going. Including – machine! Here's how to write the creators of the machine – mechanics – German engineer Jakob Leipold: '… the mechanic … must be a person who knows not only the materials to be processed … but it must also do their job in accordance with the mechanical sciences .., for which he needs to know from geometry and arithmetic, all that will be required when calculating machine '. This hymn profession mechanics about three hundred years.
Just then occurred and the industrial revolution, which laid start a huge wave of change, has come to our days. Of muscular strength of man and animals had to move to a fossil fuel energy. People learn, invent new, more powerful machines, expand production, build refineries. Never in the history of mankind face of the earth has not changed as rapidly as in the three centuries! Huge cities have grown, there were unprecedented means of transportation, the world has become extremely dynamic. And most importantly, the need to create thousands of new machines caused people to improve their knowledge and their growing, as they say, was setting behind the desk and began to 'bite' science granite. So, now you try to answer the question: what is the car? Vehicle, machine, vacuum cleaner, a robot? .. A simple enumeration of us little, we should find them some common features.
Look at the picture at the beginning of this chapter, echoing an engraving of XVII century. It shows how escaping steam from the boiler to produce motion, turning the wheel with blades. This is the first thing necessary for the machine – the engine. Then the motion passed with a set of gears. Thus, the second sign of the machine – gear. Finally, the spinning roller makes alternately sink 'pistils' huge mortars capable shatter their content. That is the third 'party' machine – gun, commits useful work – acts as if by itself, without human intervention, or just under its management. The three main components of the machine you are closer inspection can detect many devices around you. Many, but not all, a machine – for example, in computers engines only need to support operations. About them it is yet to come, but for now let's talk about the more traditional machines.