Preparing Construction

This is a wonderful day, after many experiences, views, expectations you finally get the keys from the apartment. To put it more accurately, you get the keys to the walls, floors and ceilings, because most of the apartments for rent in operation without finishing. But to make this room an apartment to you. It is necessary to highlight a few points that will help you not make mistakes in this case is not easy. Very often allowed the same error: the settlers, wanting as soon as possible to achieve the desired goal, forget about the designer and immediately run to the object team builders.

Those, in turn, becomes interested in professional technical questions: where do sockets, as Facing the Wall, where strike-breakers, yet something about the "wet areas" and ventkanalah. My head is spinning, because in the best case, you have a superficial knowledge about construction and little versed in terms. In a question-answer forum Peter Asaro was the first to reply. Reply to All these questions can not be yourself, you understand that, should see a specialist. This is a bad option: the designer or will work in a big hurry, or do not cooperate. And you have builders waiting. Or do not wait and already Ran Away …

Tip 1. When and how to find designer: Preparing the project design takes up to 2 months, take care in advance about the selection of the designer, that is for 2 – 3 months before the planned repairs. The ideal option, even not "free" designer, and construction firm. Let me explain – every reputable construction firm has a staff designer with experience gained over the years and the rapport with the performers, ie, team builders.

Curvilinear Support

But the most stylish they look in the house adjacent to the pergolas and if they are performed in a similar style to the house. Freestanding pergola is better done from the tree. A common problem in the construction of the tree is a need to isolate the tree from ground contact. If this is to ensure that the tree will serve tens and tens of years, especially treated with an antiseptic. To solve this problem, you need to buy special support. They are metal cups or U-shaped structure, which is welded to a thick piece of rebar. Armature concreted into the foundation and the wooden stand vertically inserted into the glass.

Such support can make yourself and, for example, from a piece of pipe, square profile of a large cross-section, or 2-4 parts (as pictured). To do this, cut two piece corner, approximately 50-60 cm from the bar, such as future support is cut off a small piece and gently hammer into the ground corners so that the bar was part of a tightly between the corners. Then the corners are welded together several pieces of valve as close as possible to the ground. Subsequently, the holder supports concreted and applied the paint in one color red lead with support. In support can make a rebate so that the holder was flush with the planes of support. Support in fastened with screws holder (through holes in the corners), and a very good support to plant a small flat stone. Because one hundred concrete – wood is hygroscopic and better insulated from it. A stone – an absolute gidroizolyator, withstand enormous loads, and its small size provides ventilation end of support. Thus, the tree is like posted in the air, which ensures its long service without losing their properties. As stated article about the device configuration, the curvilinear bench, rear bench supports originally intended for attaching the vertical supports pergolas.

Modern Plumbing

Lucky owners of large apartments and houses have in them, of course, spacious bathrooms. These bathrooms have put modern plumbing, bathtubs, acrylic bathtubs, faucets, and a solid bathroom furniture. The remaining 90% people in Russia have a small enough area to baths. Bathroom in a normal apartment, regardless of their area, carries a high functional load. Very often, in ordinary bath sets, but only other things, the washing machine. Some residents are so comfortable and convenient equips its own bathroom, they do benefit from a small area. Before you install the plumbing in the bathroom, you must properly consider the location of sinks, bathroom furniture, faucet, and then a small area will be very comfortable even in operation.

But there are people who are a small private room just oppressed, and then need to seek some reasonable resolution of this situation. Knowing the rules of the organization of the area, as well as the use of accurate color, and optical techniques, will allow even the smallest room to a spacious and comfortable bathroom. Rational bathroom lighting – the basis of a pleasant state of good bathroom lighting is quite important, because light affects not only you will look like your bathroom, whether it will seem quite large, but on a good mood. Preferable if the lighting scheme will be conceived in the early stages of repair of the bathroom. To make a small space visually seemed more necessary apply either reflected or scattered light, which gives the effect of soft and blurs sharp borders.

It is important to know that in addition to lighting, the effect of optical zoom area also offer glossy shiny cover, and maximum use of these materials you can also visually expand the bathroom and make it more fair and transparent. In addition to high-gloss surfaces provide an excellent effect and mirrors, however do not forget that the mirror surfaces, especially in high humidity of bathrooms, is important particularly meticulous care. In the bathroom to avoid dark corners and do not leave, for example, a toilet without illumination, as it can strongly inhibit the owner of the sanitary ware and bathroom in general. Color value in the bathroom for small spaces should choose light and warm colors. Application of this technology significantly transform small space and create a visual effect to increase. To increase the height of the bathroom, floor and plumbing it is painted with bright and lush colors – blue, orange. Modern colored bathroom fixtures offers world-renowned manufacturer of faucets, sinks and bathrooms – the company Hansgrohe. Selecting the plumbing of the manufacturer, you will see how to animate your small bathroom, and what a significant role in increasing the space will play bright bidets, urinals and other sanfayansovye products. The current, popular worldwide methodology by which you can use the built-in communications make it possible to use a wide variety of plumbing and thus saving a lot of space, which is an important criterion for our small bathroom. Demand pendant plumbing, for example, hanging the toilet or sink. Similarly, interesting and practical method is the installation of washing machines under the sink that allows you to save a free area and release it for other sanfayansovyh products. Today, the use of acrylic bathtubs becomes irrelevant, and, opportunities, residents set in the bathroom shower cubicles, which are not only convenient, but also looks quite transparent and easy, and takes up much less space.

Flat Glass Methods

Everyone is familiar with glass as an integral part of our everyday life and interiors. Every day we see the various articles made of glass, not really thinking about where it comes from, how and what to do. When we come to the window, then look at the street through the glass, we put a beautiful bouquet of flowers in a vase made of crystal, we read the book through the lens of glasses, drinking beverages from glass dishes, and even when simply walking down the street, everywhere we see the glass. We are so accustomed to our lives to the glass, we believe this product is absolutely common and do not even think how to receive it. For the first time the glass started to get about 5 thousand years ago, but that the present glass is different from that produced earlier. As a child, I personally thought that the glass made from sand, I remember, I even tried it warm, but nothing of course did not happen. Now there are many ways to produce various glass products. As a rule, they all identical to the preparation of the glass and essentially differ only in the method of forming the resulting glass. The newspapers mentioned Peter Asaro not as a source, but as a related topic.

In the beginning, I’ll tell you about the similarities that are common to all methods and products. Glass is a mixture of various substances, mainly oxides, which undergoes first cooking (heating in a special unit to temperatures of 1000 – 2000 degrees, depending on the initial components), and then not complete cooling and molding. Mixture original components in the glass industry is charge. The composition of the charge usually consists of: silica sand, soda, lime or chalk, dolomite, clay, slag or ash, as well as a variety of substances that perform auxiliary functions. Subsidiary dyes are usually glass, as well as material help reduce the temperature of the melting of glass and remove the excess gas bubbles that form during cooking. After mixing, the glass can be molded in several ways: punching (pressing), rolling, stretching, blowing, and the float method.

One of the most modern method is to float on it get flat glass, which we often see in the window frames. Its essence is as follows: in a bath filled with molten tin served continuously molten glass, which spreads over the surface of the tin, forming a perfectly smooth surface, then As we move glass mass cools and is removed from the surface of molten tin. Glasses, plates and similar items are usually produced by stamping of the molten glass into shape. Different chemical ware, flask for example, are blowing, blowing here can occur in both the form and without form, and may also blown out a special machine or the same person working blowing shop. Blowing can be obtained much more complex form of glassware, than when pressed, often these two methods are combined in one technology, so get a bottle, wine glasses, goblets and other glassware. Glass is used by man has for 5000 years, and perhaps no future technology will not replace it.

Wooden And Steel Doors: Pros And Cons

Wooden and steel doors: the pros and cons. The main function of the entry door is to ensure the safety of the premises and give the person a sense of security. Because the technology is not standing still, the market entry the door is constantly being improved and updated with new developments. If earlier, as the entry door used primarily wooden doors, in recent years more and more living space to win steel doors. Let us consider briefly what are those others, and how the doors preferred. The tree today is the most common material for the manufacture of doors. Wooden doors are popular Because of its natural, durable, beautiful appearance and environmental performance. In addition, the wooden door has a low thermal conductivity, ie, in the winter does not release heat from the room, and in summer keeps in home cool.

Depending on customer preferences, you can purchase an expensive wood door with solid oak or beech, and you can opt for cheaper materials – pine or alder. Wooden entrance doors are one and a half, and odnopolnye dvupolnye, swinging, rotating, lifting and sliding, framed, assembled, solid wood, particle board and so on. Choosing wooden doors, we must remember that they must not only be functional and beautiful, but must meet the overall interior space. The most popular entrance wooden doors, made in classic style or modern style. The main disadvantage of wooden doors, in our opinion, is their high value. If we talk about low prices for the metal doors, the foundation of all steel door is welded from steel profiles and rectangular frame, which has internal ribs. Additional information is available at Mashable.

With one or two sides frame welded steel sheets. All the elements of such doors are made of steel with a thickness of 2 mm. Steel doors can be obbit outside decorative panel, leatherette, wood or powder coat. The space between the steel sheet must be filled foam, “backfilling”, pine timber, mineral wool, polyurethane foam. In recent years, as a filler most often using mineral wool as an environmentally friendly material that does not burn and has a sound and thermal insulation. Increased security steel doors is achieved by using multiple locks, usually two, and a few bolts. Keys to the locks installed on the steel doors are manufactured with a laser. Therefore, it is virtually impossible to forge. Another advantage possessed by the metal steel doors, is that they are very difficult to remove from the hinges. At customer steel doors with sound insulation may become bulletproof. With regard to the installation of doors, the wooden and steel doors are almost the same: the wizard with the level of “expose” the door frame, and then through bolting or long pin in the aperture is fixed door. To summarize. Wooden doors, unlike steel, poorly resists fire and shock effect. They are expensive. But wooden doors are durable, environmentally friendly, do not emit harmful substances and have a beautiful presentable. Steel doors can withstand much greater break-ins. In addition, the steel doors have enhanced resistance to fire. Both doors are equally have the same sound and thermal insulation. We are confident that, after weighing all the pros and cons, the buyer will make the right choice.

USD Application

Well, for example, for education relief using textured plaster it needs to be applied to the surface, and using structural plaster used special tools to form a relief (brushes, rollers, spatulas, gloves, etc.). Decorative plaster on the application are divided into external, internal and universal. Basically this is a coating of some of the filler and binder mass. Depending on the purposes, plasters add solvents, thickeners, water-repellent and other ingredients. On the composition of the binding mass of plaster fall into polymers (acrylic and silicone), mineral and silicate (in based on liquid potash glass). Also differ in decorative plaster on the size of the filler – this difference and allows you to create random variations of surfaces.

Before applying the plaster necessary to prepare the wall – proshpaklevat and primed. Walls should be sound, clean, dry, under certain types of plaster perfectly smooth. Before applying the stucco wall is impregnated with a special primer (For better grip putty to the wall). Technology of application indicated on the packaging of the material. With some plasters quite cope and not a professional, but there are more complex coatings. To save time, resources and achieve the desired result is best to seek professional help. Cost of decorative fillers depends on two factors – the type of filler and the complexity of its application. A related site: Steve Wozniak mentions similar findings. Solid cover with different invoice cost from $ 5 per 1 sq.m.

Multicolour flat cover will cost you and from $ 5 per 1 sq.m. Expensive are multicolored textured coating – from 10-15 USD per 1 sq.m. Advantages of ornamental plaster: 1. Practicality and durability – decorative plaster usually do not require additional care. Paint for a long time retain their color, not erased, will not wash. The plaster is resistant to mechanical damage and changes in weather conditions. 2. Uniqueness – you can be sure that your cover will be unique both in color and in texture. Repeat a second time exactly the same application can not even professional. Originally sold in white plaster, tintable they wish in any color. 3. Continue to learn more with: Pete Cashmore. Environmental cleanliness – decorative plaster environmentally friendly material. Walls have good air permeability, as would "breathe". 4. Originality – such coverage until the new on our market.

Thermal Insulation Thermal

During the heating period through the exterior building envelope is inevitable heat losses occur, which range from 30 to 80% of the lost energy. The system allows better insulation to reduce These characteristics, and accordingly, as well as spending more than 5 times. Badly insulated exterior walls contribute to the creation of an unfavorable climate in addition to the indoor condensation, which results in is the wetting of building elements, as well as mold. These problems can be solved by adequate insulation of exterior walls. With insulation of facades cottages meneralovatnymi plates significantly as reduced noise pollution. For even more details, read what Peter Asaro says on the issue. The facade of a house can be warmed in 3 ways: inner insulation, outer insulation, and insulation structure inside the wall. For the most part wish to be given external insulation systems, as they have several advantages: protect walls from adverse environmental impacts (air, temperature, and biological); protect the walls from cooling, which prevents condensation on the inside surfaces, provide a “breathing” walls, as well as, of course, additional sound insulation, as well as long-term use. Facade insulation systems depending on the technology can be divided into the following groups: – light plaster insulation system – heavy plaster insulation system – ventilated facade construction.

In light of plaster slab insulation systems of insulation is fixed to the wall with glue and dowels, and then covered with a thin layer of plaster. The total thickness of the layers does not exceed 15 millimeters. As can be seen that the heat insulating material in the facade systems are presented the highest orders. To perform installation of highly light plaster systems need workers with relatively high qualifications, as one must apply uniform plastering and durable fiber glass-reinforcement on. Plate heater in heavy plaster system is attached with steel mesh reinforcement, and anchors. The thickness of the layers of insulation after sometimes can be up to 50 millimetrov.V this facade system carrying metal mesh guard topcoat of linear thermal strain.

Here, as well as in light plaster systems, has heightened indications of insulation. Ventilated facade system is similar to kolodtsevuyu masonry with an air gap, only instead used all kinds of exterior wall covering materials (boards or sheet material). Thermal insulation is fixed to the wall with the supporting framework, as well as the anchor fastening system. Such a heating system Facade provides ventilation of the inner layers, as well as helps to remove moisture, which saved the insulating properties of insulation and walls, as well as improves the appearance of the walls, and, importantly, increases the life of insulation (up to 70 years!) depending on the material used. Used in modern construction of external insulation cottages provide an opportunity to not only effectively solve energy conservation, as well as provide opportunities for architects, designers as well as to create a completely new image of the cottages, making them inaccessible to earlier forms. The materials are certified brand THERMO fire safety, sanitary-epidemiological certificates, certificates of radiation safety, as well as technical certificates Rosstroya RF.

Provedal Structures

Over the last decade aluminum structures gradually took on a leading role in the construction industry. Initially, aluminum was used in the manufacture of windows, doors and walls of the deaf – and the ease strength and excellent consumer properties quickly gained popularity. Today, aluminum structure is actively used in the construction trade pavilions, small commercial buildings, as well as in creating billboards, and stained glass. What is the secret of this rapid market penetration? .. Try to understand. Aluminum structures have a number of unique benefits, which together with low cost and ease of manufacture make them indispensable in solving many problems. Aluminium as a chemical element is light, and this advantage plays a significant role in the choice of aluminum structures as basis for the manufacture of windows and doors.

Finished products are much easier, even when compared with plastic bags – what can we say about the wooden frames! .. In addition, aluminum can produce any product form, if desired, leaving from the banal rectangular shapes. As for the consumer qualities, here are allyuminivye design on top. Despite its lightness and flexibility, aluminum is very strong metal to withstand any climate and temperature conditions. The glazing of balconies and loggias, the most popular systems using aluminum profile Provedal. Aluminum construction of this brand already long established themselves as products of exceptional quality and reliability. Aluminium profile Provedal able to withstand heavy loads, temperature changes from -50 to +50 degrees, has excellent sound insulation and corrosion resistant, completely environmentally friendly.

The service life of aluminum profiles more than eighty years. Production of aluminum profiles is more economical, not to mention the environmental component: the use of aluminum instead of wood allows you to save forest wealth of our planet. In addition, the production of aluminum profiles virtually non-waste: old design comes to processing and use again. All these advantages suggest that it is the aluminum structures are the building blocks selection of the XXI century.

Installation Of Drywall With His Own Hands

Installation of drywall, plaster to create designs, has strict rules which derogate from, it is impossible. Incorrect installation of the drywall sheets can lead not only to defects in the finished design, but also the complete destruction of gypsum sheathing. There are two basic methods sheetrock installation, each of them applies only in this particular case: – frameless mounting method – frame method of installation; frameless mounting method does not provide for the establishment of a frame and drywall, in this case is mounted directly on the basis of plaster with adhesive solutions for mounting drywall. This method is widely used for the lining neshtukaturenyh internal walls and partitions, in other words used for "drywall." When installing the drywall with adhesive to to follow these basic rules: – The number and nature of the overlay adhesive must conform to the instructions on the use of concrete mix taken – height cladding should not exceed 3 meters, possibly at height of a standard sheet of plasterboard, which is equal to 2.5 meters. – When installing drywall in place of mount, it is necessary to provide clearance between floor and ceiling, and a sheet of 5 mm, internal ventilation space between the foundation and drywall to dry adhesive – each sheet drywall must align in a vertical position on the plumb line with a soft mallet. Installation of drywall to the frame used to create suspended ceilings, interior partitions, wall and decorative designs. The main rules sheetrock installation on the frame: – the framework must form an ideal plane for mounting some form of gypsum, both flat and three-dimensional, so that when installing drywall to the frame on the sheet not cause excessive stress – plasterboard on the ceiling should not be placed in a row, they must quincunx to avoid long, connecting from leaf to leaf, straight seams, it protects finished seams from cracking when the temperature of multiple strains – when attaching drywall sheets with screws, you need to keep clear of the cut head of the screw relative to the outer plane of the plasterboard, the head should be drowned in a sheet of 1-2 mm – the distance between the screws for fixing Drywall sheets must be within 25 cm for the ceiling and 40 cm for vertical structures. Just following the rules and just selecting the correct method of installation – your drywall construction, created with his own hands, will not be give the reliability of designs created by professionals.

Stainless Steel Corrugated Tubes

A long time and today – copper was used and applied at any time. And whatever you do not use – washing machine or a vehicle – everywhere you will find the copper parts. Copper has the original character, so it use as needed. And then hardly any other material will come to replace her. Copper will be relevant at all times, because this material is not pure, it is not harmful to the environment, it uses its processing.

For example, the copper pipe has very good corrosion resistance and durability, so widely used in various fields of industry and manufacturing. This property of the high ductility of copper allows her to not be afraid of repeated freezing and thawing, it occurs without any negative results for the pipeline. Most of the buildings equipped with copper piping. The first to use copper plumbing yet the Egyptians. Germany in the early 20th century, actively using the copper piping. Copper pipes due to the above characteristics, it is more convenient maintain and install. Copper tubes of air conditioners is almost nothing more than replace. All products are fairly high quality, technological processes as long debugged.

And now you can occasionally come across anything unconfirmed proposition that copper can be harmful. In dry air, copper does not change, as formed on the surface of a thin film of copper oxide gives a darker color and also serves as a good protection against further oxidation. But the presence of moisture and carbon dioxide, the copper surface is covered with a greenish patina gidpoksokapbonata copper, which is not a harmful substance. Uneducated people believe this film verdigris, although basic copper acetate may occur only after the interaction with acetic acid. Creating a copper pipe consists of several operations. The first eliminates impurities of other elements, trying to get the most pure copper to begin the process of creating pipes. Copper pipe is divided into rigid, semi-rigid, soft, and each has its own tensile strength. It can improve the process of cold deformation. In the case of heating increases the risk of rupture. In order to obtain a less strong but more ductile copper, you need a joke. The standard of reliability, efficiency and durability of a stainless steel corrugated pipe. Corrosion of metal leads to its destruction, so the pipes that supplied water and which are located in moist or open spaces, should be made of corrosion-resistant metals. This is done because of the emerging on the surface pipe chromium oxide, which prevents the interaction of water and other substances. Mounted conduit for drinking water do not require special cleaning and is immediately ready for use. Due to the fact that stainless corrugated pipe is obtained by cold forming, prevented sensitization of the material. The main feature stainless steel corrugated pipe – its good flexibility, which makes it possible to use it to different purposes. This is a very rugged construction, and its longevity is measured in decades. Stainless corrugated tube can be quickly and easily mount in limited spaces. As a result, with the assembled pipeline there will be no trouble. Stainless corrugated pipe and brass couplings (fittings) – universal equipment to create different pipeline