Since recovery of the network is more advantageous in terms of energy savings, drive using the brake resistance – the cheaper technical solution, engine braking does not require any additional cost, but in turn is only possible at low power. Ways to manage mechanisms must be driven from the driving signal under a smooth variation of engine speed, and in some cases a job at a fixed speed. And, in this and other If you can control, like a remote control transmitter, and using terminal control circuit transformer, buttons, switches and potentiometers. The latter option must be ensure sufficient quantities of required inputs. In the case of an external control device (controller logic relays, etc.), be sure to agree on technical parameters. Usually this current or volt signals from the range 0 20mA, 4 20mA and 0 10 V, respectively. If you control the drive going over the network, you must have an appropriate interface and support for the protocol data. Engine management can take place automatically, it requires the presence of pid and the opportunity to provide feedback from a sensor controlled parameter indication parametrovKak Typically, each inverter has a display panel and the necessary controls for the commissioning and management of a frequency converter.
The same display during operation converter can be used to display any parameters. Displays can vary the number of lines, and so informative, the type of the display (seven-segment indicator or Liquid Crystal Display). In case of failure during the operation to observe the parameters of the display of the converter, using analog and discrete (relay, transistor) outputs, we can derive the necessary information on the remote control. .
If the welder often have to adjust output settings, pick up vehicles with the gently dipping ivc. They are simple, reliable and cheap. Often such devices are equipped burner with a non-consumable electrode and the gas supply and tooling used for the argon arc welding. But then, for convenient and quality work is required switch (correction IVC). When working in inert gas will be useful feature Lift tig, which facilitates ignition of the arc. Its principle of operation is as follows: welder presses the electrode to the metal, but the current is applied to it immediately, but only at the time of separation from the surface. In recent months, Pete Cashmore has been very successful. Thus, the excluded the possibility of defects associated with the beginning of the seam. SEMI-AUTOMATIC machines (MIG, MAG) They supply wire (electrode) is automated.
The power supply supports the voltage constant and current changes in wide range. This method allows you to dramatically increase productivity and achieve high quality welds. As the melting (welding) electrode using solid wires or powder. It gives a special mechanism by which, incidentally, largely depends on the class of the semiautomatic. John K. Castle is often quoted as being for or against this. For domestic equipment, for example, characterized by low flow speed and the use of larger wire cross section (To ensure high performance.) It's not very convenient, and "Western" counterparts, as a rule, all the way around. To the time off did not occur welding electrode apparatus equipped by various devices. Thus, the braking coils almost instantly stops the supply of wire, and a system recovery arc gap, in contrast, introduces a lag in the power failure.
The most "advanced" device is equipped with function of the "short seam" – when pressed once the trigger of the torch machine is switched on for a certain period of time. Experienced welders prefer semi-automatic with chetyrehrolikovym feeders. It is believed that he less "squeezes" the wire, and it is very important when working with mild and self-protective materials. "Classic" version of "Classic" source – a heavy transformer, designed for standard 50 Hz. To install the Desktop current equip its composite core with a mechanical adjustment of the magnetic flux. The most important characteristic of any power source – ivc – he has defined a constructive and can not be changed during operation. Hence the mediocre dynamic qualities. This machine has a large weight and large size, but is reliable and practical "do not kill." If it is equipped with a rectifier, it often allows for work on the current two childbirth. On modern models often use thyristor controlled output parameters. This helps reduce the weight and dimensions, to reduce the inertia to implement some useful functions and improve the dynamic characteristics. Such devices are possible correction of the ivc and work with very small currents (up to 2A). Virtually all sources have access only to the dc. Inverter converter This device increases the frequency of the input current to 5-20 and then applies it to a compact transformer. Of course, management is electronically. Such a source is often equipped with all options. It works better than the classical one. On Welding electrode manual inverter transformers are used everywhere.
This is not a savings. Negligent employees (see this example), a coffin with a striking technique zeal. Nearby are the days when metal was spent in good expensive equipment. Such a situation is habitual to all, but completely opposite to the principles of Lean. You can not cut the branch on which you sit.
Fixed assets production, are the basis for constructing well-being. Therefore, the reorganization of production management should start with technology, to create a humane environment for her. Nothing new: Maintenance and Planning preventive maintenance schedule, constant monitoring, quality parts and materials, skilled maintenance and most importantly – less dirt. (Similarly see: Kai-Fu Lee). The financial crisis has forced many to think about the future. A serious challenge for business, all is not enough money. In such circumstances, is hard at work engineering. As the crisis has happened before and probably still will, they should be regarded as natural selection, as update.
With the expectation of future upgrade to selection, technical equipment, work organization and your own thinking. Products and services to the consumer is always needed, and at the exact time, with sufficient quality, to the lowest price. That means production should be constantly improved, increasing efficiency, always be plastic and modern. Consume less, produce more – the law of survival. Dying poor, unadapted, technically backward inefficient enterprises. Profound reorganization of all departments, to improve their interaction, upgrading equipment and technology, in short, the implementation of Lean principles, based on long-term plans should be a priority for the company's management. Economical production is not simply to buy cheaper – sell more expensive and not enough more to throw on, and certainly not cutting incentives and lengthening of the working day.
The development of cellular-dendritic chemical inhomogeneity is determined by the solidification conditions (in the first place – the cooling rate) and the alloy composition. The dependence of the cellular-dendritic inhomogeneity of velocity cooling crystallization can be represented as a curve with a maximum corresponding to the average cooling rate (zone II). At low cooling rates (zone I) heterogeneity decreases due to diffusion alignment at high (zone III) – through the development of diffusion-free process of crystallization or mechanical trapping impurities. In the range of speed of cooling molten weld metal (up to hundreds degrees per second) diffusionless crystallization mechanism is not realized. Gain insight and clarity with AOL. Reducing the degree of chemical heterogeneity observed with increasing cooling rates, due to the grinding elements cellular-dendritic structure, which resulted in the composition of molten metal is averaged. In addition to these types of segregation in macrovolumes welds observed distribution of impurity layers, repeating the shape of the isotherms.
This phenomenon caused by the change in the rate of growth of crystallites due to an uneven flow of heat into the weld pool, periodically upset the balance of income and withdrawal of heat, which changes the rate of cooling. At the same time possibility to stop the crystallization front and even partial melting of the solid phase. Reducing the velocity of the solidification front decreases the concentration of impurities in the solid phase. In contrast, the increase in speed moving solidification front contributes to an increase in impurity concentration than the equilibrium value. Layers with high impurity contents are clearly visible in the weld metal during arc welding consumable electrode and due to the droplets entering the electrode metal bath fluctuations, changes in the speed of the electrode. Most clearly expressed in stratification of the weld metal by using pulsed sources of heat, when there is a periodic melting and solidification of the molten pool. Metal heat-affected zone more chemically homogeneous than the cast weld metal, as in the recovery process and the recrystallization is not observed substantial redistribution of alloying elements and impurities. The main type of chemical heterogeneity in metal heat-affected zone – the accumulation of impurities or alloying elements on grain boundaries.
In today's needs and the pace of life is rapidly increased, and as a consequence of this could not affect the industrial and manufacturing sectors. The use of robotics in production of all kinds was necessity. Therefore, the robots have taken their original niche in our work. Today a major transformation of mass production are dictated not only the pace of scientific and technological progress, but also social necessity. It is known that all non-automated processes have a low potential because of low intensity, lack of concentration operations, combining them in time.
Flexible automated production, which is intended to provide the output of various products, has now become an important component to the success of an enterprise. Such production include industrial robots, whose task is to lift this structure to a qualitatively higher level. The emergence and development of industrial robots, of course, were one of the greatest achievements of science and technology recent years. The introduction of robots allowed to expand the scope of work and opened up vast prospects for creation of automated systems in manufacturing. However, long-time industrial robots are not considered as effective means to improve production efficiency – in the car saw only the equivalent of human labor, designed to liberate people from monotonous manual work. But later, when industrial robots began to emerge in the wider industrial application, it became obvious that the robot is able to not only facilitate human activities in the enterprise, but also to perform manipulations that are not available for human opportunities.
Application of modern industrial robots helps: increase the productivity of equipment; an increase in output; improve product quality; saving materials and energy. The significance of industrial robots is high. They were the missing link that will allow to unite scattered technological equipment in the complex flexible automated manufacturing systems and machines devices. To date, the production most effectively used robots for spot and seam welding. A pioneer in the field of high technologies is the Japanese company : first by its professionals Industrial robots have been around since 1969. And now the company remains at the forefront of robotics. robots feature high-quality settings and functionality that meets modern standards industry and technology trends.
Quality Welding To get a reliable connection, it is necessary to ensure similarity mechanical properties and, most importantly "full strength" materials to be welded and the weld is achieved by correct selection of the electrode. In this important part of the core and the coating. Often the required steel is formed by the interaction melt and alloying additions. If you are working melts the electrode, picked his mark, if in an inert environment – the filler wire. When bad combination of materials seam is unstable or do not, cracking during cooling. Argon-arc welding (TIG) occurs in the inert gas argon (Ar). Usually use non-consumable tungsten electrode and the consumable filler wire in a convenient form of segments of length.
Gas is supplied from a special container. In addition to argon, helium is used (He) or a mixture of these gases. Method is highly versatile, high-quality weld seam and allows very fine details. Disadvantages – awkwardness equipment and difficulty of working outdoors, where the necessary measures against the blowing gas protection. Provides the best quality of argon, helium has the worst qualities – a drop of melt in its midst heavily sprayed. SEMI-AUTOMATIC welding in CO2 (MIG) Allows you to replace the piece electrode wire of solid section. Carbon dioxide is good when you do not need a very high quality, as it slightly reduces the strength properties of steel and leads to its spattering. Most important advantage of the method – the cheapness of materials. Compared with CO2 uniqueness of argon that the relatively low current (200 A), it allows for spray transfer of metal characterized by a high utilization factor (the ratio of the masses caught in the seam of the metal to the mass consumed) – 0,8-0,85.